٣ "" ٥.

                                         ( ȸ )

DZ ļ 츮 ߲ ٸ ݷ, , ̴. 500 (1495 ) ݷ 󱿡 ()̸, ؼ ϴԳ() ϴ ߤ̴. ݸ ٲ ̷ 迡 ̷()Ǵ ̸, 츮 󱿡 ü ''ô.

  󱸦 ϴ ̶ ŽҼ Ұ ŭ ؾ ǥؼ̴. "ؿ (縸 äٷ)"̰ äٷ "(ٷ)"̴.

  ̵ ۸ غ 1595 ƿ ٥ "" 1615 ƿ "" "äٷ" Ǿ, 235 1830⿡ ٽ "" (ʷ) ٣Ͽ ̴.  ó 츮 () ִ δ "ٷ" "" ()Ǹ鼭 () , ٽ ʷϵǸ鼭 ̸ ִ. ۢ () ̷ ׶ ϴ.  

   23׸ ٷµ, " äٷ" Ű鼭 22° ׸ '(д)' ()Ǿ, ׸ 'Գ' 22׸ '()' ٲ.  

  ǻ 'Գ' ׸ ޸ ''ϰ, ް ''ϸ, ޴ '̾'ϸ, 'Գ'(Գ;߾ᢡ ) ߴٴ Ү ̾ Գ̴. 22׸ ۰, 22׸ (Գ, ᢡ ) ߴٴ Ү̱⵵ ϴ. ѵ 'Գ'ڸ ϰ ٷ. 츮 뿡 ɸ ޸ Φ() ϴ ȭμ ﰥ ̴.

   23 ġ μ ߿ (ذ)Ͽ ۿ () ͱϸ, 찡 ¼ ʷ ǰ ƴϾ ϴ ϰ ȴ.   () ٶ ̴.

          

            Ǽ

  

 ؿ          

(ä )       1.

 ä                   

,                  ⸦ ǰ ,

 

.                        ñ⿡ ̴.

  .             

ګ,            ʹ ġ ʰ,

 

ߤ.                  űο .

 

߾,         ,

 

,                5 ,

 

.                   ٽ ̴.

 

߾,                    ̰,

--------------------------

(). (). (ָ). ( ϳ, 4 20 ).

,                      ָ ,

             

ӥ.                     ձ ٨ ̴.

           

.               ٨

                                ó .

 ö

,                        ,

  ä

߾.                   ̽ 컶 .

  ä

.                   ذ ĥ ̴.

  ä

.            帮 ġ ʴ.

 

ߧ߾,            񿡼 ̰,  

 

,                     볪 ؿ ̸,

 

մ,          巯 ̸,

 Ȳ

.                  뿧 ̴.

--------------------------

ӥ(ձ ). ( ). (, ). (̽ 컶 ). մ(巯 , ). ( ).

-------------

ɨ ؿ; ̾ , 1595 ٥ ""     1611-1617 ƿ ʵ "ؿ " "" Ǹ ٽ    1830⿡ "" ʵ.

ɨ ; ɨ

ɨ ӥ; ձ۰ ü ٸ ظ     ̴. ׷Ƿ ޺ , ָ ε     ձ Ѵ.

ɨ ; Ѱ() 8-12 µ     ó . ̶ ƹ̳ (Ư '    ' Ҹ 'ƴ') ̭ ϸ, ޺ ϰ     'īģ' ʥ ϹǷ ĥ Ʈ.      (ۣ ) ñ̴.

( )     2.

  ä  

             ٰ ٱ

 

.                     ν ,  

  ô

Χ.                    ġ 뱸ܿ,

            

.          ´.

             

Χп.                        ޱ⸦ ,

--------------------------

(). ;(, ٱ). (μ). ().

 

.                      ְ ϴµ,

 ȭ                 

ʦ.                        ߸ ȴ.

  ȭ              

۰.                     ͱ⸦ ٷ ,

 ö                

.                ü ȿ ,

             

ӥ.                      ü Ѵ

                                              (̻ ù )

 

ݥΧ,                               ٽ ȿ ־,

  ȭ                

,                      ߰,

 

.                        ˸

                                              (̻ )

                 

ڰ,                ߿ ִµ,  

 

.                 Ÿ ƴ.

 ȭ   

г,                ұ ޴° ,

             

ڸ,                    Ⱑ ϰ Ƶ,

--------------------------

(). (). (ҿ ش, ). (ϴ '', ''). ڰ(ô). (ƴ). (Ÿ). (Ǵ, ). (ӹ).

 

ڰڱϼ,                        ϼ ϸ,

 

ګ.                     Ź õ.

--------------------------

ڰ(ô, ڰϴ). ϼ(ñ ϴ). (ͽ, Źϴ). (, ). (ġ, õ).

ܩ ( )     3. к

      ȣ

. .      ̶,

                            ù ϰ,

     

. .              ϰ,

                                ̱ () Կ ,

  ȣ

֫Χ.           쿭 ù ܿ ȴ.

 û Ź ȣ ȭ

.                   ûŹ ҿ ϴµ,

 ȭ û    

. Χ.              ,

                             Ź .

 ȭ

.                   ͷϸ Ͱ Ÿ,

--------------------------

ܩ(к). (). (ǰ ). Χ(ù , ù ). (). (糳).

 (). (). (, ʴ)

 

.                        Ÿ ϸ

                                 Ұ,

 

Φ.               Ǹ Φ() ϰ,

  ȯ

ʿ.               ; ǻƳ.

  Ȳ    

. .              ϸ Ȳ ϰ,

                                 ˰ ȴ.

    

. ߻.              ο ް, Ž .

             

۪.             Ѹ ϸ,

             

.                    ƾ .

--------------------------

(Ž). ߻(). ۪(ϴ).

( )     4.  

 

.                     ϴµ,

 

.               ׸ ,

     

Ϣ.               ̷ ϰ,

     

Φ߲. .                ,

                             ȸϱ⸦ ٷ,

  ȭ

ڰп.          ٽ ҿ ؾ ¦ ,

                   

͡.              ı ٷ ϴµ,

          

.                        ä,

  ģ

줡.                       벮 ε,

  ȭ         

졡.                ׼

                            ̷ μ

 

ϡϢ.                  Ѵ.

  ȭ      

߾.     

                             ϰ,

 ġ

.                        ⸧ ӿ ε,

 ü dz ȭ

ڨ.             ٶ ų

                             ʴ´.

--------------------------

( ׸, ). (ٸ). (ƿ '', ٽ''). ڰ( ). п(شܰ, ¦ ). (, ). ,( ). ( ). (). (Ҿ, ). (). (). ( ⸧ ڡ [ ]).

dz

.                 ٶ ̸ ,

  ȭ Ȳ

.                 ҿ Ȳ Ѵ.

(ȭ )     5.

     ȭ

. .         ̱ ,

                               켱 Ѵ.

  ȭ ȫ     ǥ       

. ߾.             ȭ Ӱ ,

                                μ ø,

 

.              ä ,

             

.           Ҹ ٷ

                             ̰ Ѵ.

                

.            ̴ 븦 ̶.

             

Φ.           ġ ϰ,

--------------------------

(, 丮ϴ). (, ǥֹ, ). (¦, ä, ä). (, ). ( ). (ٱ , ). ( ϰ Ǵ ϰ Ÿ鼭 ȭϴ -- ɴٴ , ʹ ִ ص ʰ, ʹ ⩰ DZ ̴).

 

˽.             ϸ ,

  ȭ

Φ֭.          밡 ġ ұ ż,

                

֭.             ż Ѵ.

  ȭ               

.             ȭⰡ ϴ,

                

ުʫ.             ٷ ٰ ƴϴ.

--------------------------

(ε巴). ˽('', ׺ϴ''). (). (ϴ)

ܩ( )     6. к

     

߲ܩܩ.         3 뺯

                                15 Һ ִ.

            

ܩ. ܩ.                     ù° ϰ,

                                        ° Ҹ ϸ,

 

߲Ѩܩ.                    ° Ѵ.

            

Үܩ. ܩ.             ¸ ,

                             Ҹ ϸ,

  ø              

Ѩܩ.                                Ѵ.

                            

, , ,        , Դ, ,

   

,.                   , ̴.

       

.              ڱ  Ǩ

                                         ѽǴ ĵ Ҹ ̸,

            

Ѩ. ۰.              ,

                                پ ̰ ̴.

                 

, , ,             ù Ҹ, Ҹ, Ҹ,

                   

, .                  ޸ Ҹ, ̴.

 

.                                        Ҹ ,

 

۰.                       پ ̰ ̴.

               

Ѩݩ׬, ׬,                ǰ ö, ,

     

߲׬, ׬կ.              ,

                                 а Կ ̸,

--------------------------

(̱, ). (). (). (, ޸). (ĵ). (ڱġ ). (ĵġ Ҹ). (). ۰(پ). (). (ʹ). (). (). ( ޸). ݩ(ߴ). ׬().

               

կ. .       , ̴.

                 

Ѩλ.                            ٰ̾

                                        - - ո,

 

۰.                 پ ̰ ̴.

--------------------------

ɨ ; ڪ , ()     ٰ ó .

ɨ ;'' ' ', ġµ ھ     ¿ . 'ڴ ' 'ҡ '̴. ' ' + ' =     ', ' '.

(δ) 7.

ä  

.      ä

                                 Ǵ ߴ.

ͯ.                    ,

                    

.                       ϸ ݵ ,

         

ب. ب.              ݵ ,

                                 ݵ ü ϴ,

ǥ          

ޫ.               ' Ƽ γ

                                 ' ϴ,

ȭ

ӥ.      ̸ ,

                                ӥ󱸦 .

        

ܥݩ.         Ÿ,

        

.        ̴ ''

                            '' ̴.

             

. ʣب.             ó

                                ü ˵ ʰ,

  ü                

.                  ߹Ƿ,

                   

.               ⩴ ̾,

                    

ۡ.               Ǿ Ѵ.

                

ͺ.            ׷Ƿ ' ,

 

߲.                 븦 ' ߴ.

--------------------------

(, ϴ). (ź, ). (). (˵). ب(). (ȸٶ, γ). Ƽ). (ȭ). ب(ü ). ʣ(). (Ʒڴ, ׵). (ϴ).

ɨ ; (Ȥ ʹ ) '' ϰ, ''    ()ؼ ̴. ͷ ° ''̰      ° '' ' '̴.

ɨ ; (1012-1067) 䳪 . ٣ , ܴ . "    ", ""

ɨ . ; '' ϴ  ̰,    '' ڪ ʹ ٸ ڪ ٴ ̴.      , ̴.

ɨ ӥ; ̹ (ӥ) 󹫴 (ӥ)Ǵ 󹫴 (    ӥ), յ޸鿡 ǹ. 󵿻 ᶿ     . (ݹڹ) Ǵ (ݻ繮) .

ɨ ߲; , , ګ, ̸.

( )      8. 츮

 Ž    

. ܥ.           ϸ, ,

  ȣ                

.              ٰ ȿ ,

     

Ѩ. .           ñ⸦ ľ, Ƴ.

                       

.                 Ŀ ʹ.

                    

.                ˸° ϵ,

--------------------------

(ã, Ǵ). (, ٰ). ( ִ). ( ִ). ().

                

ʦΦ.              Ѱų

                                         ʴ.

  ħ             

ګ.           

                                 ,

  û

Ѩ.          (츰 )

                                Ѩ ϴ.  

  ȣ

.                          츲 ,

  ô               

.                   ٽ ü ľ ,

  ȣ                     

̾.                 θ ϰ ϰ Ѵ.

                 

.             ƴϸ Ⱑ  Ѵ.

              

θ.                 θ ߰ſ

                                 ǽġ ʰ,

 ȣ û            

.           ٰ Ѵ.

  ȭ

.                    ٷ ,

                 

¡.             Ŀ ɷ Ŵ.

--------------------------

(, ϴ). (﷡ , ǰ ڴ١ ̴).  (θ, η, ). ( ٱ, ). (ٸ). (ε巴 ȭ ). ( Ÿ).

               

. .             Ÿ ġ ʰ,

                                        ñⰡ ʾ ġ ʴ.

  

ڱۡ.                    űⰡ Ǿ ʰ,

   

.                    ȴ.

--------------------------

 (, ʴ). ( ). ().

( )      9. ֱ

     

. .            ֱ ʰ ,

                                ϰ λѴ٨

                 

. .                ְ ڸ,

                                 ֱ(Ǵ ) ϰ

                             

. ػ.              ݸ װ ־,

                                                ٽ ä.

 

.                         ߰ ֱ(Ǵ ) Ѵ.

     

. ߾.          װ ڸ,

                                ڿ ֱ(Ǵ ߾) Ѵ.

--------------------------

(). (ͯ﷡ 'λ' , մ).

     

. ߾.                ߰ ֱ,

                                 ڿ ֱ,

 

.                   ܿ ֱ Ѵ.

--------------------------

ɨ ; ٽ '' Ͽ ٷ . '' ó     'մ١ λ' .  

ɨ ; Ʒ ֱε ġ ̴. ̴ , ߰,     ϴ. ׸ ֱ⸦ Ѵ.

( )      10. ñ

              

.             

                                ϴ Ѵ.

                      

.                  ò,

                

.                   ò ڶ.

  ö                 

Լ.                       Ȧ ø ŷɽ,

            

. ߲.        , ̸ ڽ,

        

׿.                   ̸ ߸,

--------------------------

(ò). (ƴ ). (޸, ڽ). (ߴ). (Ǯ).

ĥ

.                  ϰ ̸ ǯ̶ Ѵ.

()              11.

      

. յ.            Ű Ű

  û                  

. .           Ű ִ.

 ǥ             

.           Ѱ Ѱᰰ ,

    û          

.          Ͱų Φ û,

 ȭ             

г յ.          ұⰡ ӹ ̶ ϰ,

                

.                 ű ɨ ̶.

                

, ש, ݩ,           ޸ , ,

                                , ִµ,

           

, Ѩ.       ̴ ٸ ̴.

--------------------------

(ô). (). (). (Ǵ). (ӹ). (ٽ '', ġ ''). (). ݩ( ʰ ö󰡴 ). ( ǹ ).

-------------

ɨ ; (420) űο ٴ ڰ    ̳ Ŀ ʦ ̴. ֿ , (5 5     ) ñ̴.

ɨ ,ש,ݩ,; š 巯 . שš     .

()            12.  

  û               

.                 Ǫ ε,

                

Ԧʢ.              ̸ ,

 Ȳ ȫ ȥ                     

.                  ο ,

ǰ           

. Ԧ߾.              ǰ Ѵ.

                                 ,

   Ȳ       

Ԧ. Ԧ.              ߰,

                                 Ʒ̴.

õ Ȱ ȭ           

. ٫.       [ ִ ,

                                 ϰ ޿,

                 

٫޼Ԧ. .             謰 ,

                                ܿ ݿ!]

--------------------------

ګ()                  13.  

                

ګ߾.                ް ̰,

                      

߻.                  Ʒ̴.

--------------------------

( ѻ, )/ (). (, ̴). (, ε巴). ߻(). (, ). ().

ɨ Ԧ; 'ū , ĥ ' ,  δ ' ' ̴.

            

()  14.

 

.                  ڿ ְ,  

  

. ګ.            ְ, ̰ ִµ,  

                  ,

. .              Ҵ´.

.                ұݱⰡ ְų,

.                        Ÿ ų,      

.                        ȿ Ⱑ پ ,

.                        Ҵ´.

ܨʦ(ٺҰ)15.

  û               

.                ó ѵ,

              

. ܨ.       ŵξ ҹ ϸ,

                                                ó ϰ,

  Ȳ            

ܨ. ߲ܨ.             ٽ ܨ, ° ܨϰ,

        

ܨ. .            ° Ͽ,

                                 ø ,  

  ô                

Ѩ.                   ϸ ô δ.

--------------------------

(, 巯, ٴ). (¥, ұ). ,(, ). (). ().

(ǰ õ)      16.   ǰ

                   

.                 ̿,

  ü                  

.                ̴,

 

ުذ.           ƴϸ űⰡ Ÿ ʰ,

  ü            

ުЪ.                  ƴϸ .

  õ û               

ߣ.                            ,

  õ û               

ߣ.                   Ʒ ſ,

  õ û              

.             ޸,

  õ û              

֩.                    ,

  õ              

ӿ.                    .

  Ȳ               

׵ʢ.                    帣 ,

  û               

.                   Ǫ

                                 .

             

׵.                 ׵ϴ ,

             

ݶ.                 ״ ͺ پ.

   

ګ.                                ,

  ȭ

.                        ̶ ش.

--------------------------

(巯). (). Ъ(). (). (). ֩(). (, 帣). (). (ϴ). ݶ().

()17. 칰

                      ġ ʴ

    

. ߣ߾.             "ٰ"翡 ̸⸦ ' ,

     

˰. .              ,

                             Ʒ' ߴ.

                

۰˰.              ʰų,  

  õ                  

ߣ.                     ħ 꿡 ,

                

.                    帶  

                                Ƶ ϴ.

  ȭ                     

ګ.                        ް (ȭ)Ͽ,

             

Ҭػڪ.                  ؿڪ ϴ ̴.

  û                     

.                  ⩴ ,

 

.                  ̰ ̰ Ӱ Ͽ,

 

ޡ.                   Ͽ,

 

.                    ̴ ġ ʴ.

--------------------------

  (, ħ). (ȭ, Ž 帶). ػ(). (). (). (δ)    ( '', ''. (̽). (پ , Ǹ ).

ɨ ; (733-804, < ȣ õ>. , )     ߲ .  9 (764) .

( )      18.

  ġ

.            ݵ ״ 㿡 ΰ

                                 Ͽ,

 

.                 ,

 

Ѩ.                    ̽ Ͽ,

 

ߤ.                      Ǹ Ⱑ ʰ,

 

Ѩ.                       űο ׻ ȴ.

 

ʣֵ.             μ ų,

 

򵡡.                       ̳ ׼μ Ͽ,

 

.                                Ʒ ̸,  

 

.                      ŷ Ҹǰ,

 

ҮѨ.                        ,  

 

ꡡ.                 ŷ Ҹ()ȴ.

  ȣ

.              

 

.                 ż, ŷɽε,

 

.                 ż Ұų,       

 

.                   ŷ ,      

 

ϵ.                  ٸ.

--------------------------

(). ,(벮). ;糳 '', ش ''). (ٴ). (). ϵ().

( )      19.    

     ǥ    

.       ˨

                                ' ӿ ǥֹ ,

  ġ           

Φ.                     ̸ ġ ġ,

              

.                ڿ ︦ dz,

 

.                      ϹǷ,

              

.                 ư' ߴ.

              

.                 δ ̶ ,  

  ȭ         

ק.                   ק(ַȭ)迡

                                ؾ ѵ,

            

ߣ.                     ߣ ()鿡,

  ǥ             

.                        ּ θ ,

                   

, , ګ.     , .

  ö     

ӣ.                     ٸ ﰥ ̴.

--------------------------

(ġϴ). ( , Ī). ( Ǵ ) . (ּ). ().

( )      20.

 

߾.             ,

 

.                  ջġ ,

 

.                      ݰ.

--------------------------

()   21.

             

.                     ñ Ŀ,

       

ث.                  ַ ߾ .

  Ÿ             

.                        ۿ Ƿ,  

              

.                   ⿡ ɸ ʴ.

--------------------------

(). (). (ʺ, ). ث( ). (۴). ().

-------------

ɨ ; .

ɨ ק; ק, ӡ 簢.

ɨ ߣ; .

()    22. ׸

                                  (  )

 

.                   ּ ,

          

ޡ.                   ū ȿ .

             

.                  ϸ ٽ .

Գ( )      23. (Ŵ)

                  ( ؿ '' ٲ)

. .              , ,

                     

̾. , , ̾,        ̾, ··̾,

                      

Գ.                        ų ٸ ̴.

--------------------------

(). (). (, ). (). (, ). (). ̾(Ʋ).

---------------------------------------------------------------------

ۢ                ٽ ޱ

.                     (28 1828) ,

۰ߣ.                   () ĥҾƿ,

                                 󰡼

ĥ   

. .             Ͽ Դ.

.                          ٽ ٸ ,

ܻڱ.                     ź Ͽ

                                 ߴ.

ȫ        

گ. ۮ.         ȫ ̽

                                ڹ濡 ־µ,

                    

Գ.                       ۰Գ ˰ ϱ⿡,  

    

. ܻڱ.                  ϴٰ,

                                         ߴ.

   

ͺ˭٤η.            «

                                          ̷.

 

.                     ְ ,

              

Լ.                    ڸ ϰڴ°.

Ȥ dz            

.                 Ѹ Ȥ dz ,

Գ.                ٵ ٵ ߱⿡,

                 

ͺʦ.                      ɽ

                                ()Ͽ δ.

       ޾Ϻ               

   . ܻ.               ̿ ޾Ϻ,

    â˷  ټ                  

    .                    â ȭ Ȱ ﰡ .

--------------------------

   ('' (776-896?) dz). (). η().    

       () Ҵ

           ---------------------------------------------------

1786 10 ܰ ߲ ڦ 45 ¾.       , ݡ ; ܻ Գ ߣۮ ߾        (, ߣ, ڦ Ҵ 63 )

1800 24 15 ʫ( Գ ߣ ) ܡ       Էκ

1809 9Ҵ 24,  (ߣ ٳన. "ظ       " ), ( ̫. . ۰       ˵, , <1028>).

1818    (18 33 ߣ " ")

1823    23 ͤڱ 38 . (       )

1824    24 ˣ 39 ̿.

1828    28 43 ߣ ݿ "" .

1830    30 45 "" .

1833    33 ͤ 48 (),  ݿ .

1835    1 ڱ 50 ߣ, ()

1836     2 ܰ 51 (ߣ <, 75>)

1837     3 52 "" ().

1838     4 53 Գ ۢ.

1839     5 54 ߾Դ ۾ ߣ. ȿ        , ( ۾ < > )

1840     6 55 ( Գ 𡿡 ׵)

1843     9 ͤ 58 ͺ .

1844    10 ˣ 59 ( )

1851  2 66 ( " ۢ") ( ,         , ׵)

1858     9 73   " ".

1866    3 ܰ 81    .                 

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